South Carolina has a hybrid funding formula incorporating both student-based calculations and extensive use of program-based allocations.
It assigns a cost to the education of a student with no special needs or services, called a base amount. It then accounts for the additional cost of educating specific categories of students by applying multipliers to the base amount to generate supplemental funding for certain students. The categories of students generating supplemental funding in South Carolina are low-income students, English language learners, students with disabilities, students identified as gifted, and students enrolled in career and technical education programs.
The state also makes use of program-based allocations to provide career and technical education, career services, physical education, reading coaches, and nurses.
South Carolina has a fixed base funding amount per student. For FY2016, the per-student base amount was $2,220.
This means that an average student with no special needs or disadvantages would be funded at that level.
|Expected Local Share||
South Carolina expects its school districts to raise revenue to support their public schools. The amount each district is expected to raise is based on a combination of its property values and a defined share of the amount calculated by the state to be necessary to educate its students.
Statewide, school districts are expected to contribute approximately 30% of the total cost of public education. The collective local share percentage is multiplied by a district-specific index of taxpaying ability (a measure of its property wealth relative to the level of property wealth statewide) to determine the share of funding that each district is expected to raise locally.
Once the state calculates the total amount of funding necessary to educate students within a district, it subtracts the expected local contribution and provides the difference in the form of state education aid. However, school districts in South Carolina that choose to do so may raise less or more money locally than the expected amount.
South Carolina does not differentiate most kinds of education funding based on students’ grade levels. However, the state does provide allocations for certain programs and staff positions that are limited to certain grade levels.
Funding for personnel, supplies, and transportation related to career development and counseling is allocated only for students in grade 6-12. Funding is also provided for elementary school nurses, reading coaches, and physical education teachers.
South Carolina provides increased funding for English language learners. It does so by applying a multiplier of 1.2 to the base per-pupil amount for these students.
South Carolina provides increased funding for students from low-income households. It does so by applying a multiplier of 1.2 to the base per-pupil amount for these students.
Students are eligible for this supplemental funding if they qualify for Medicaid or for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL) under the National School Lunch Program.
S.C. Code Ann. § 11-11-156
South Carolina funds special education using a multiple student weights system, providing different levels of funding for different categories of students. Students are assigned to 10 different categories based mostly on their specific disabilities.
Specifically, students are assigned to one of nine categories based on their disabilities, or to a tenth category for homebound students. The state provides supplemental funding for students in these categories by applying different multipliers to the per-student base amount. The multipliers for non-homebound students with disabilities range from 1.74 to 2.57, depending on the specifics of the student’s diagnosis and education plan. Homebound students with disabilities are funded at the base amount. State law requires 85 percent of the amount generated for a particular disability category must be expended on that category of students.
The remainder of state special education funding is allocated to meet the federal Maintenance of Effort requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which is distributed in proportion to districts' total special education membership and can be spent with few restrictions.
South Carolina provides additional resources for gifted and talented students. It does so by applying a multiplier of 1.15 to the base per-pupil amount for these students.
Students enrolled in gifted and talented courses, Advanced Placement courses, or International Baccalaureate courses are eligible for this funding. Each student may generate this supplemental funding only once.
|Career and Technical Education||
South Carolina provides specific funding for career and technical education (CTE) programs. It does so by applying a multiplier of 1.29 to the base per-pupil amount for students in grades 9-12 enrolled in these programs, and through program-specific allocations for CTE equipment and the work-based learning program.
In FY2016, the state appropriated $7.3 million for CTE equipment, to be distributed first at a flat rate of $20,000 to each school district and official multi-district career centers meeting certain requirements, with any remaining funding in the state appropriation distributed in proportion to the prior-year student enrollment figures for CTE courses. The state also appropriated $3 million for the work-based learning program, including $75,000 for teacher professional development, $500,000 for regional career specialists, and the remainder to be allocated to school districts in accordance with a formula.
The formula for the distribution of the remaining funding in the state appropriation for the work-based learning program includes consideration of the per-student base amount; the district’s enrollment, and the district’s tax index.
South Carolina does not provide increased funding based on the concentration of students from low-income households in a particular district.
|Sparsity and/or Small Size||
South Carolina does not provide increased funding for sparse districts or small schools.
Funded: State Policy Analysis
A Detailed Look at Each State's Funding Policies
Below, see summaries of the state’s education funding policy in each issue area. Click the Expand icon next to any summary to see more detail, if available, about that state’s policy regarding that issue area. Click the Citation iconnext to any summary to see the sources of the information regarding that issue area.